To reduce the impacts of a disaster, the "PPRR" model is usually used to outline what is required in the four phases of a disaster [1]

  1. Prevention
    • When – Before a disaster
    • How – Take measures to prevent or mitigate the exposure to a hazard (e.g. avoid smoking in the countryside to reduce to risk of wild fire; build dams by the sea to protect coastal areas from tidal waves and prevent flooding)
  2. Preparedness
    • When – Before a disaster
    • How – Take actions to reduce the impacts of a disaster (e.g. learn to recognize the signs and symptom as well as the handling of heat illness before going hiking in summer; storing a reasonable amount of food and drinking water at home before severe typhoon)
  3. Response
    • When – During and shortly after a disaster
    • How – Take action to support the immediate needs of yourself and those affected (e.g. leave your apartment with your getaway kit during a fire, i.e. mobile phone, wet towel and keys; maintain limited public services for emergency needs during a typhoon)
  4. Recovery
    • When – After the immediate effects of a disaster
    • How – Take short- and long-term measures to restore and improve what have been destroyed (e.g. after a typhoon, remove debris on the streets; restore public transportation and rebuild infrastructure in seriously damaged areas)

The four phases may overlap and interdepend on each other. For example, measures for prevention and preparedness can be carried out together, whereas recovery measures help restore the functions of society while preparing it for the next possible disaster [2].

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